Scaling Websockets with Message Brokers

Some thoughts on how WebSockets can be used with message brokers.

If you don’t know how WebSockets work, check out my previous article.

Done? Let’s explore more about WebSockets!

When we talk about scalability; that too in the context of WebSockets, a server should be able to do:

Here are some tips:

While the above points look interesting, keep in mind that we might need to scale connections over different machines. However, we also need to find a way to deliver a message to a certain user. We can publish messages to all server instances, but this does not scale well.

This is where the Pub/Sub architecture comes into play; where you can connect WebSocket server instances over a central Pub/Sub broker. Clients that establish connections with your WebSocket server subscribe to topics (channels) in a broker, and as soon as you publish a message to that topic, it will be delivered to all active subscribers on WebSocket server instances.

The choice of message brokers are as follows:

, etc..

But why do we need message brokers for scaling Websockets? Let’s see an example: is a multiplayer drawing game. Let’s say we want to make something similar to users can draw something, other users get real-time visualization of the drawing, etc.

If you think the client-server-database architecture would be sufficient, you’re probably moving in the wrong direction. Here’s why:

Fetch Latest Changes
When to fetch latest changes?

Adding Message Brokers

Now let’s add a message broker to our architecture:

When a user draws something, the drawing is saved in the database with an unique ID, and then, an event/message is published to the message broker based on the unique ID for the drawing.

Since the event has been published to the message broker, interested clients (which in our case will be the users in the same room) can fetch the latest changes from the database and update their local state (new drawing coordinates, etc.)

As you can see, this architecture is much more scalable than the previous one.

Publish new event to message broker.
Publish new event to message broker.
Fetch latest changes from database.
Fetch latest changes from database.

Client Disconnects

Now, what happens if a client gets disconnected during the game?

The drawings made during the period when the client was disconnected are saved in the message broker. When the client reconnects, it can check the latest events based on the timestamps, and fetch the latest changes from the database.

Handling client disconnects.
Message brokers to the rescue!


WebSockets are powerful. Combining message brokers with them makes them more powerful, as message brokers:

I hope this post motivates you to explore more about using message brokers like Kafka, RabbitMQ, etc. with WebSockets! 😄